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Last updated Mar 24, 2015
Created Mar 24, 2015
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License Open Data Commons Attribution License
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createdMarch 24, 2015
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hash2bed6f6ffaa0c734b35d1ce6f660b9d7b918d8ab
id50ea08e9-224f-4f63-be0a-c938beab57fd
instrumentCampbell Scientific TDR100, CS645 probes and CR1000 datalogger
instrument.calibrationDetailsSee enclosed calibration document
instrument.headerMetadataheader consists of a timestamp made up of 5 columns year: the year of reading, month: the month of reading, hour: the hour of the reading, minute: the minute of the reading and second: the second of the reading. These are followed by unique probe numbers which can be related to the section drawings and TDR probe mappings file. 'Year', 'Month', 'Day', 'Hour', 'Minute', 'Second','Probe Numbers (1 to 16 for each station)'
instrument.measurementDomainAndUnitsBulk electrical conductivity in siemans per metre
instrumentIDDDCF: TDR: 2530 and 2553, dataloggers: E3838 and E2278; DDPF: TDR:2551, dataloggers: E2279 HHQF: TDR: 2529 and 2532, dataloggers: E1834 and E1840 HHCC: TDR: 2531, dataloggers: E1835
last modifiedMarch 24, 2015
license idodc-by
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on same domain1
position4
resource group id89eeaa57-fa21-4e2f-af1a-26b69f205c0e
resource.abstractProcessed bulk electrical conductivity data
resource.accessConstraintsNone
resource.bibliographicCitation@data{dart_bec_hhqf_2011_2013_pro_n.csv, doi = {not allocated}, url = {http://dartportal.leeds.ac.uk/dart_public/dart_monitoring_bulk_electrical_conductivity_cstdr100/dart_bec_hhqf_2011_2013_pro_n.csv}, author = "{Dan Boddice}", publisher = {DART repository, School of Computing, University of Leeds}, title = {dart_bec_hhqf_2011_2013_pro_n.csv}, year = {2013}, note = {DART is a Science and Heritage project funded by AHRC and EPSRC. Further DART data and details can be found at http://dartportal.leeds.ac.uk} }
resource.completenessComplete with some gaps due to datalogging issues
resource.consistencyConsistent data structure, attribution and relationships.
resource.creation.endDateTime2013--
resource.creation.startDateTime2011--
resource.creation.statusComplete
resource.creator.emaildxb043@bham.ac.uk
resource.creator.nameDan Boddice
resource.creator.orcIDhttp://orcid.org/0000-0002-3738-2327
resource.custodian.emaila.r.beck@leeds.ac.uk
resource.custodian.nameAnthony Beck
resource.custodian.orcIDhttp://orcid.org/0000-0002-2991-811X
resource.descriptionBulk Electrical Conductivity (BEC) data were extracted from the waveform collected by the Time Domain Reflectometry probes installed at each of the DART sites, both inside and outside of archaeological features. Measurements were taken every 60 minutes between May 2011 and June 2013. The 'as-design' was to install the probes in vertical arrays within the archaeological sequence (AS) and multiple vertical arrays in the surrounding soil matrix (SSM) to detect lateral variations. The 'as-built' deviated to the 'as-design' due to difficulties in installation in the different sediments. The location of each probe can be found on the section drawings in the excavation collection. The exact locations for the probes are as follows: DDCF: DDPF: HHQF: HHCC: A larger numbers of probes was used in the heavy clay soils as opposed to the free draining soils. This required the use of two multiplexors which meant that two data files were created for each site (given the suffix A (where all the probes were installed in the archaeology) and N (where all the probes were installed in the 'natural'). The probes in the well draining soils were given the suffix B to refer to installation in 'Both' archaeology and 'natural'. The data were logged locally and collected, downloaded and processed every month. It is postulated that the multi-temporal BEC measurements when analysed with the geotechnical, weather and temperature data will help determine why geophysical surveys vary over the same position and associated issues about vegetation mark formation. The aim is to provide a better understanding of when contrast between archaeological features and the surrounding soil matrix occurs and what causes this contrast in order to optimise geophysical surveys. The TDR data take the form of voltage as a function of time, which can be converted into BEC and APT, depending on the window used. Once the APT and potentially BEC are obtained, these can be converted into soil moisture content using a number of different equations (a summary of these equations is contained within the collection). Some of the equations require specific technical information on the soils (some of which is collected in the geotechnical analysis stored in the laboratory collection). Research has shown that depending which equation is used, the variation can be up to 50percent. SPECIFIC INFORMATION ON TDR PROBES AND SETTINGS: Soil conductivity data was collected hourly using a Campbell Scientific TDR100 and presented as waveforms. Window apparent start length: 100m. Window apparent length: varies(see calibration file). Averaging: 50. Propagation Velocity: 1.0. No of points per waveform: 2048. Calibration using the methods of Bechthold, M., Huisman, J.A., Weihermueller, L., Vereecken, H. (2010). Accurate Determinition of the Bulk Electrical Conductivity with the TDR100 Cable Tester. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 74(2), 495-501. and Huisman, J.A., Lin C. P., Weihermuller L., and Vereecken H. (2008). Accuracy of Bulk Electrical Conductivity Measurements with Time Domain Reflectometry, Soil Science Society of America, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 426-433. Using 8 reference solutions of KCl solution in different concentrations: Molarity: 0.15M 0.10M 0.075M 0.03M 0.00375M 0.001875M 0.0010M 0.00046875M. Conductivity reference values derived with Hanna instruments conductivity meter (HI 9033, Hannah Instruments, manufacturer claimed accuracy +/- 1percent). The TDR100 Time-Domain Reflectometer is the core of the Campbell Scientific time-domain reflectometry system. This system is used to accurately determine soil volumetric water content, soil bulk electrical conductivity, rock mass deformation, or user-specific time-domain measurement. Up to 16 TDR100s can be controlled using a single Campbell Scientific datalogger. PC-TDR software is used with our TDR100-based systems during system setup and troubleshooting. It is included with the TDR100. The TDR100 (1) generates a short rise time electromagnetic pulse that is applied to a coaxial system that includes a TDR probe for soil water measurements and (2) samples and digitizes the resulting reflection waveform for analysis or storage. The elapsed travel time and pulse reflection amplitude contain information used by the on-board processor to quickly and accurately determine soil volumetric water content, soil bulk electrical conductivity, rock mass deformation or user-specific, time-domain measurement. Up to 16 TDR100s can be controlled using a single Campbell Scientific datalogger. A 250-point waveform is collected and analyzed in approximately two seconds. Each waveform can have up to 2,048 data points for monitoring long cable lengths used in rock mass deformation or slope stability. Averaging up to 128 readings makes accurate measurements possible in noisy environments. TDR100 Specifications: Pulse generator output: 250 mV into 50 ohms. Output impedance: 50 ohms +/-1percent. Time response of combined pulse generator and sampling circuit: less than 300 picoseconds. Pulse generator aberrations: Within first 10 nanoseconds: +/-5percent After 10 nanoseconds: +/-0.5percent. Pulse length: 14 microseconds. Timing resolution: 12.2 picoseconds. Waveform sampling: 20 to 2048 waveform values over chosen length. Distance range: -2-2100m(0-7ms). Resolution: 1.8mm (6.1ps). Waveform averaging: 1 to 128. Electrostatic discharge protection: Internal clamping. Current drain: During measurement: 270 mA, Sleep mode: 20 mA, Standby mode: 2 mA. Power supply: Unregulated 12 V(9.6 V to 16 V), 300 mA maximum. Operating Temperature: -40 degree to +55 degree C. Collected with CR1000 datalogger. CR1000 Specifications. Maximum Scan Rate: 100 Hz. Analog Inputs: 16 single-ended or 8 differential individually configured. Pulse Counters: 2. Switched Excitation Channels: 3 voltage. Digital Ports: 8 I/Os or 4 RS-232 COM. Communications/Data Storage Ports: 1 CS I/O, 1 RS-232, 1 parallel peripheral. Switched 12 Volt: 1. Input Voltage Range: +/-5 Vdc. Analog Voltage Accuracy: +/-(0.06percent of reading + offset), 0 degree to 40 degree C. Analog Resolution: 0.33 microV. A/D Bits: 13. Temperature Range: Standard: -25 degree to +50 degree C Extended: -55 degree to +85 degree C. Memory: 2 MB Flash (operating system), 4 MB (CPU usage, program storage, and data storage). Power Requirements: 9.6 to 16 Vdc. Current Drain: 0.7 mA typical; 0.9 mA max. (sleep mode) 1 to 16 mA typical (w/o RS-232 communication) 17 to 28 mA typical (w/RS-232 communication). Dimensions: 23.9 x 10.2 x 6.1 cm (9.4" x 4.0" x 2.4"). Dimensions with CFM100 or NL115 attached: 25.2 x 10.2 x 7.1 cm (9.9" x 4.0" x 2.8"). Weight: 1.0 kg (2.1 lb). Protocols Supported: PakBus, Modbus, DNP3, FTP, HTTP, XML, POP3, SMTP, Telnet, NTCIP, NTP, SDI-12, SDM. CE Compliance Standards to which Conformity is Declared: IEC61326:2002. Warranty: 3 years. The CFM100 stores the datalogger's data on a removable CompactFlash (CF) card. The CFM100/CF card combination can be used to expand the datalogger's memory, transport data/programs from the field site(s) to the office, and upload power up functions. The module connects to the 40-pin peripheral port on a CR1000 or CR3000 datalogger. Technical Description: The CFM100 includes a card slot that can fit one Type I or Type II CF card. Only industrial-grade CF cards should be used with our products. Although consumer-grade cards cost less than industrial-grade cards, the consumer-grade cards are more susceptible to failure resulting in both the loss of the card and its stored data. Industrial-grade cards also function over wider temperature ranges and have longer life spans than consumer-grade cards. Data stored on the card can be retrieved either by removing the card and carrying it to a computer or through a communications link with the datalogger. The computer can read the CF card either with the computer's PCMCIA slot and the CF1 adapter or the computer's USB port and the 17752 Reader/Writer. CFM100 Specifications: Typical Access Speed: 200 to 400 kbits s-1. Memory Configuration: User selectable; ring (default) or fill-and-stop. Power Requirements: 12 V supplied through the datalogger's peripheral port. CF Card Requirements: Industrial-grade; storage capacity of 2 GB or less. Dimensions: 10.0 x 8.3 x 6.5 cm (4.0" x 3.3" x 2.6"). Dimensions of CR1000 with CFM100 attached: 25.2 x 10.2 x 7.1 cm (9.9" x 4.0" x 2.8"). Weight: 133 g (4.7 oz). Typical current drain: RS-232 Port Active Writing to Card: 30 mA Reading Card: 20 mA RS-232 Port Not Active Writing to Card: 20 mA Reading Card: 15 mA. Low Power Standby: 700 to 800 microA.
resource.distribution.techniqueDownload only
resource.edition1
resource.fileFormatcsv
resource.funderScience and Heritage Programme, Arts and Humanities Research Council, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
resource.instructionalMethodNone
resource.keywordsSoil, bulk electrical conductivity, Moisture, Water, Soil Moisture, Probe, Monitoring
resource.languageeng
resource.licenseodc-by
resource.license.typeURLhttp://opendatacommons.org/licenses/by/
resource.lineageNone: this is raw data
resource.localURIhttp://dartportal.leeds.ac.uk/dart_public/dart_monitoring_bulk_electrical_conductivity_cstdr100/dart_bec_hhqf_2011_2013_pro_n.csv
resource.metadata.creator.emaildxb043@bham.ac.uk
resource.metadata.creator.nameDan Boddice
resource.metadata.creator.orcIDhttp://orcid.org/0000-0002-3738-2327
resource.metadata.languageeng
resource.methodsAndStandardsStation design and calibration based on Curioni, G., Chapman, D.N., Metje, N., Foo, K.Y., Cross, J.D. (2012) Construction and Calibration of a Field TDR Monitoring Station. Near Surface Geophysics, 10: (3): 249-261. Design modified by Boddice.
resource.processingStageComplete
resource.processingStepsConversion from binary format using CardConvert producing a sequence of discrete points representing the TDR waveform (2048 points, which is the maximum possible number of points for the TDR) Take the last 144 points of the waveform (although it is possible to only take 1 point, but this was not done here) to determine the reflection coefficient by averaging these points; this gives the steady state reflection coefficient; however, this value has to be corrected for the non-ideal behaviour of the TDR by scaling it (see Huisman, J.A., Lin C. P., Weihermeuller L., and Vereecken H. (2008). Accuracy of Bulk Electrical Conductivity Measurements with Time Domain Reflectometry, Soil Science Society of America, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 426-433); This corrects the refection coefficient. Use the corrected reflection coefficient and the output impedence of the TDR to calculate the load resistance of the TDR probe; this load resistance is combined with the cable resistance and connector resistance and the probe calibration is applied to determine the bulk electrical conductivity. This is all done using a Matlab script. For more information, also see Curioni, G., Chapman, D.N., Metje, N., Foo, K.Y., Cross, J.D. (2012) Construction and Calibration of a Field TDR Monitoring Station. Near Surface Geophysics, 10: (3): 249-261.
resource.publisherSchool of Computing, University of Leeds
resource.purposemulti-temporal heritage detection
resource.relatedResourcesDartProjectOverview
resource.repositoryNamehttp://dartportal.leeds.ac.uk/
resource.reuseConstraintsNo conditions apply for reuse (remix it, publish it, share it, commercialise it, sell it etc.) except attribution (see resource.bibliographicCitation)
resource.reusePotentialarchaeology, environment, heritage, soil science, farming, ecology, geography, earth science
resource.samplingStrategyProbes were installed in a known natural profile, denoted by the suffix N. Data are recorded every 60 minutes.
resource.topicgeoscientificInformation, environment, heritage, farming, climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere, imageryBaseMapsEarthCover, society, structure
resource.typeDataset
resource.type.specificText
resource.updateFrequencynot planned
revision ida406d62f-c81c-47c8-8a4c-a38aeb40cf73
revision timestampMarch 24, 2015
size11.9 MiB
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spatial-textUnited Kingdom
spatial.boundingBox.OSGB36.east407,049
spatial.boundingBox.OSGB36.north200,918
spatial.boundingBox.OSGB36.referenceSystemOSGB36
spatial.boundingBox.OSGB36.south200,497
spatial.boundingBox.OSGB36.west406,483
spatial.boundingBox.WGS84.eastLongitude-1.899
spatial.boundingBox.WGS84.northLatitude51.707
spatial.boundingBox.WGS84.referenceSystemWGS84
spatial.boundingBox.WGS84.southLatitude51.703
spatial.boundingBox.WGS84.westLongitude-1.908
spatial.defaultReferenceSystemOSGB36
spatial.driftGeologyno superficial drift geology
spatial.landuseArable
spatial.ordnanceSurveyPlaceNamehttp://data.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/id/50kGazetteer/109734
spatial.polygon.OSGB36{ "type": "Polygon", "coordinates": [ [ [406483, 200918],[407049, 200918], [407049, 200497], [406483, 200497], [406483, 200918] ] ] }
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spatial.solidGeologyhttp://www.bgs.ac.uk/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?pub=SI
stateactive
temporal.rangeDescribedByDataDateTime.end2,011
temporal.rangeDescribedByDataDateTime.start2,013
temporal.resource.availableDate2013-08-01
title.alternativedart_monitoring_bulk_electrical_conductivity_cstdr100
title.patternWhere appropriate each resource has been named with the following pattern: DART_<3 character sensor/collection name>_<spatial location>_<StartDateTime YYYYMMDD with optional HHMM>_<endDateTime YYYYMMDD with optional HHMM>_<stage PRO or RAW to refer to processed or raw data>_<other stuff>.<suffix>. Hence, the file DART_T3P_DDCF_20110823_20130106_PRO.csv refers to DART data collected using the T3P Imko soil moisture probes at Diddington Clay Field between 23rd August 2011 and 6th January 2013 which has been processed and is available in a comma separated text format.
typefile.upload
webstore last updatedMarch 24, 2015
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